Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD)

Temporomandibular disorders or TMD is a collective term encompassing problems of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), muscles of mastication (function), and its associated structures. (Luther 2007)

Common symptoms include:

Prevalence studies report that 75% of the population suffer from at least 1 sign (clicks) and 33% suffer from at least 1 symptom (pain) of TMD (Luther 2010).

What is its association with orthodontics?

The current scientific evidence shows that orthodontics is ‘TMD-neutral’. That is, it either causes nor cures TMD. (Manfredini 2016)